Proper potato processing before planting
Potato is the second bread, in one form or another it is found in many dishes, and gourmets who especially respect it even add fresh potatoes cut into small cubes into salads. But in order to get a really high-quality potato crop, it is necessary to select the tubers correctly, prepare them for planting, process them accordingly, and then plant and start caring for the potatoes. Today we’ll talk about the proper processing of potatoes before planting.
- Calibrate potato tubers before planting
- Planting potato tubers before planting
- Germination of potato tubers before planting
- Potato tuber germination terms
- Potato tuber germination conditions
- What to do if potato tubers sprouted prematurely?
- Processing potato tubers before planting
- Treatment of tubers from wireworm and Colorado potato beetle
- Treatment of tubers aimed at protection against late blight
Calibrate potato tubers before planting
The first step in preparing potato tubers for planting is to calibrate them and simultaneously inspect for rot or other damage. So, if the potato tuber began to rot, then this part needs to be cut and burned, and sprinkled the bare core, ideally, with soot, but also wood ash. Some are treated with a weak, pinkish solution of potassium permanganate, can be treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulphate, it is permissible to spray with a solution of Epin or Zircon, and then allow the cut part to dry to form a crust. If this is not done, then part of the potato can rot in the soil, especially if it is rainy in the summer.
Next is the calibration - tubers are usually divided into those that are more than one hundred grams, such when planting it is better to cut in half, having done all the above procedures, then those that weigh about 60 to 90 grams can be planted, they can be planted whole and tubers less than forty grams, they are best planted in a separate area, and if the yield there is weak, they can go to livestock feed or for other types of processing.
When cutting large potatoes, remember that it is best not to cut across, namely, along the way, and on one and the other hand, the tuber will have approximately the same number of shoots. To place the divided tuber in the soil, you need to cut it down.
Planting potato tubers before planting
The second stage of pre-planting processing of potato tubers is their landscaping. There is nothing complicated about it, they just need to be laid out in the light in one layer, and when one barrel gets a dark green color, then turn all the tubers into another barrel for complete landscaping. Such tubers accumulate a lot of solanine, they can not be eaten, but they sprout faster and shoots, as a rule, are more friendly and strong.
Germination of potato tubers before planting
The next stage is the germination of potatoes. With a good host, seed potatoes lie in the bunker and do not form sprouts right up to the moment when the owner of the seed potatoes does not begin to germinate it, it is also the key to high yields. Sometimes the whole secret lies in the fact that the potato intended for sowing, that is, the seed is stored in a separate bin or even in a separate room at a constant temperature four degrees above zero. At this temperature, the tubers “sleep” and growth processes do not occur in them.
Potato tuber germination terms
Usually tubers are removed from bins where seed potatoes are stored to produce sprouts, that is, to germinate, about 15 days before planting in the ground. This time is usually enough to form full-fledged sprouts, reaching a length of about a centimeter. Sprouts can be smaller, this will slightly delay the seedlings, but if they are larger, this can lead to breakage during planting, then the emergence of seedlings will be delayed for a long time, this should not be allowed, therefore, it is not worth rushing to lay tubers to obtain sprouts.
Potato tuber germination conditions
In order for the tubers to sprout faster, they must be placed in a place lit by the sun and kept for a week on the floor covered with burlap at 19-21 degrees above zero. As soon as the sprouts begin to appear, the potatoes must be very carefully transferred to a cooler place where the temperature is within 11-14 degrees above zero. It is in such conditions that you should wait for the emergence of sprouts.
It is perfectly permissible to sprout potatoes in ordinary wooden crates - this is done when there is no place to sprinkle the potatoes in an even layer. The temperature conditions are the same, only monitoring the length of the sprouts in this case will be more difficult.
What to do if potato tubers sprouted prematurely?
It happens that the gardener opens the lock, and the seed potatoes have sprouted, and before planting there is still quite a lot of time, what should I do? There are three options: either break off all the sprouts and wait for seedlings after planting (only at a later date), or cut off all the sprouts so that their parts are one centimeter long, and sprinkle the tips of the slices with soot, or purchase new seed because hopes to get a quality crop with such tubers will be less than with normal ones. You can plant sprouted potatoes "as is" and wait for what happens.
Processing potato tubers before planting
When the tubers are selected, calibrated, which need to be cut, the foci of rot are removed, they turn green in the sun and give sprouts about a centimeter long, it is time to start the final, but very important pre-sowing stage - to treat the tubers from diseases and pests.
Processing tubers from wireworm and Colorado potato beetle
The wireworm and the Colorado potato beetle cause irreparable damage to the potato, these two pests can completely destroy the crop, so the treatment of tubers against the wireworm and Colorado potato beetle is necessary before planting. Against these pests, it is permissible to use insecticides that are allowed in the current season and strictly following the instructions, without exceeding the dosages and working in protective clothing - a dressing gown, respirator and protective long rubber gloves.
Against wireworms and Colorado potato beetles, potato tubers can be treated with drugs such as Tabu and Prestige; these drugs are quite capable of protecting tubers and seedlings from wireworms throughout the growing season.
As for the Colorado potato beetle, the Tabu preparation usually protects the plants for a month after the emergence of potato seedlings above the surface of the soil. This is sometimes enough to sprout as much as possible and be able to independently resist the Colorado potato beetle.
After this period, you can re-treat the potato with the drug, diluting it in strict accordance with the instructions on the package. It is possible to process them both the plants themselves and the soil beneath them. Remember that the solution for treating tubers and for treating plants is stored only a day. Typically, gardeners breed one gram of the drug in a bucket of water, this amount is enough to cultivate a hundred parts of land with planted plants.
Potato tubers can be treated with complex preparations before planting, that is, having both insecticidal and fungicidal properties, for example, Prestige has this effect. This preparation is usually diluted 1 to 20 and sprayed with potatoes on all sides from a spray bottle. A solution from one package is enough to process ten kilograms of potatoes or a little more. After processing, do not immediately plant potatoes, they need to be allowed to dry for a couple of hours, and then they can be planted in the soil.
It is noted that Prestige protects tubers and the aerial part of the potato plant from thrips, various harmful bugs, wireworms, leaf flies, and sawflies, and fights against such fungal diseases as scab, rot and powdery mildew.
For those who do not accept the use of chemistry, we can advise you to try planting potatoes, mustard and any legumes at the borders of the site. This can save potatoes from both pests.
Treatment of tubers aimed at protection against late blight
Phytophthora is a scourge of nightshade crops, therefore tubers should be protected from it when planting. Various fungicides are often used against phytophthora, but they also use safer substances - such as Epin, Poteytin, Bioglobin and the like. Such substances are also called adaptogenic agents, that is, mobilizing and enhancing the immune system of potatoes already at the stage of tubers.
Epinus is usually treated with potatoes about 24 hours before planting in the ground. Ampoules of one milliliter are enough to process about 50 tubers. The drug Poteytin, - it is also permissible for them to process the tubers 24 hours before planting. Bioglobin - they don’t process the tubers, they are usually soaked in it for 30 minutes. It is also permissible to wake potatoes that have fallen asleep with Bioglobin, soaking them for one hour.
Treatment with Fitosporin. Do not be afraid of the name, Fitosporin is a biological product, it is very effective in combating fungal infection and can even prevent the development of a bacterial infection. Phytosporin can protect potato tubers after they get into the ground from scab, rot, and the aerial part from powdery mildew and late blight. In addition, any biological substances, including Fitosporin, contribute to increasing plant resistance to stress.
It is permissible to spray tubers with phytosporin both before the emergence of sprouts in order to activate their germination, and before planting them in the soil, in about 1.5-2.5 hours. You can immerse tubers in a solution of Fitosporin. Usually Fitosporin is sold in bags, so half a packet is most often dissolved in a liter of water and 30-35 tubers are sprayed with this amount.
Here are all the techniques that you should know and conduct before planting potato tubers in the ground, they will allow you to get the highest possible yields of this crop.