Uploader, orSwirlfish (Monótropa) Is a genus of perennial saprophyte chlorophyll-free herbs of the Heather family. Plants of this genus are widespread in regions with a temperate and cold climate in the Northern Hemisphere, mostly in coniferous forests.
The genus consists of two species, one of which is found in Russia.
The genus Podielnik was previously included in the Monotropaceae Nutt family. (Vertlianitsyevye, or Podielnikovye), but later the rank of podzhelnikovy was reduced to the subfamily (Monotropoideae) as part of the Heather family (Ericaceae) Now this subfamily includes three tribes, including the tribe Vertlyanicevye, or Podielnikovy (Monotropeae) with approximately eight genera, among which are Allotropa, Monotropisis and Podelnik.
A synonym for the scientific name is Hypopitys Hill (1756).
Scientific generic name -Monotropa - can be translated as “one-sided” (Greek monos - “one”, tropos - “turn”). This name is given because of the one-sided inflorescence characteristic of the species.Monotropa hypopitysthat grows in Europe. The Russian name "podёlnik" is a translation of a species epithet of the same species (Greek hypo - "under", pitys - "spruce").
Russian folk names - podoelnitsa (pododelnitsa), uraznaya grass.
English gender names -Indian pipe (“Native American pipe” - due to the similarity of plants with Indian pipes),Ghost plant ("Plant of ghosts", "perfume flower" - because of the white color),Corpse plant ("Cadaveric flower").
Finnish name of the genus,Mäntykukat, literally translated means “pine flowers”, and Estonian,seen-lill, - “flower mushroom”, similar to forest cap mushrooms.
Representatives of the genus are perennial herbaceous plants completely devoid of chlorophyll. Coloring - white or yellowish (sometimes pink or even pink-red), the same for the stem, and for leaves, and for flowers; the whole plant seems fashioned from wax. Emerald is common in shady forests of different composition - mainly in coniferous, but is also found in mixed and deciduous forests (for example, in oak forests). It grows in forest litter - most often at the base of conifers.
Stem juicy, height from 5 to 25 cm, with a diameter of about 0.5 cm.
Leaves alternate, fleshy, scaly, ovate-oblong, about 1.5 cm long.
Flowers regular, up to 1.5 cm long, elongated bell-shaped. At the ecliptic monochromatic, the flowers are single, at the earthenware ordinary - in an amount of two to twelve, tightly adjoin each other, collected in the apical drooping brush. Calyx is absent; usually there are two bracts, almost the size of the petals. The corolla is almost white or creamy yellowish, consists of four or five petals, each of which has a small saccular bloating at the base.
The monocots nectar stands out for precisely these thickenings. The nectar disc is absent in the flowers of the emerald (unlike most other related species), however, reduced papillae remain at the base of the ovary. Stamens not less than eight. Flowering - from mid-summer to mid-autumn (in the European part of Russia - at the end of summer). Ovary upper. Pollination occurs with the help of insects. To attract them, the plant spreads an aroma similar to the smell of lemon.
Fetus - oval (ovoid) capsule. When the fruit ripens, the drooping brush on which the flowers were, straightens.
Seeds Compared to the seeds of other heather, the eared grass is very light, similar to dust (their mass is 0.000003 g), equipped with a “tail”. The “tail” and such a small mass are explained by the fact that the seeds are spread by air currents, and in the dense forests where the elder grows, the wind blows are very weak.
Until recently, it was believed that the emerald was a saprophytic plant, but the organization of its nutrition was much more complicated. Emerald, like most other representatives of the Heather family, lives in symbiosis with microscopic mushrooms. The peculiarity of symbiosis in an ecliptic is that the hyphae of the same mushrooms penetrate both the roots of the ecliptic and the roots of adjacent trees.
Through these hyphae, the eloquent receives not only the nutrients that the fungi produce, but also the substances from the trees (for example, phosphates) that it needs for normal functioning, including the formation of seeds (for this reason, the epoch can do without photosynthetic parts) ; in exchange, the trees get through the same mushroom hyphae of excess toxins produced by an accomplice.
Another peculiarity of the ecliptic is that microscopic fungi are found in almost all organs of the plant: both in the roots, and in the shoots, and even in the flowers.
The question remains open whether representatives of the genus Podielnik should be considered as parasitic plants.
The Indians of North America used an eclipse for the treatment of eye diseases: they applied the medicine from this plant to the conjunctiva of the eye. In Europe, the emerald was used as a medicinal plant in the treatment of whooping cough.
The genus Podielnik includes two types:
- Monotropa hypópitys L. (1753) - Common emerald [syn. Hypopitys monotropa Crantz (1766)]. The species is found in many temperate regions of Eurasia, as well as on the Pacific coast of North America. In Russia - in the European part, Siberia and the Far East. In the European part of Russia, the species is more common in the non-chernozem zone. In general, this species is a rather rare plant, but sometimes found in large numbers.
- SubspeciesMonotropa hypopitys subsp.hypophegea sometimes considered as an independent speciesMonotropa hypophega Wallr. (1822) - Crib earthenware [syn. Hypopitys hypopheghea (Wallr.) G. Don (1834)]. Compared with the common emerald, in plants of this species, the flowers are glabrous, smaller, collected in loose inflorescences.
- Monotropa uniflora L. (1753) - Monocotyledon eclipse. The species is found in the Himalayas, East Asia, and also in North and Central America from Alaska to Panama, as well as in the north of South America (in Colombia), while the range of the species has significant gaps. The plant is quite rare. Usually has a white color, but pink and red specimens are also found.