Summer cuttings of trees and shrubs - myths and real experiences
As a child, I was delighted with the fairy tale, where the main character was deftly hiding from the chase - he stuck twigs from a bush into the ground, and a thick impenetrable green forest immediately grew behind him. I experimented with twigs from the age of four (and continue to this day). So, summer cuttings are a great opportunity to get a young seedling of the desired variety. The procedure is simple, fast, and almost always successful even for beginners. About it - further.
General principles of summer cuttings
1. Everything has its time
Cuttings need time to "mature" until the cuttings. After cutting the branch, it takes time to take root, adapt and prepare for winter.
MYTH 1: it is best to take young green branches for cuttings.
How to understand that a stalk can be cut and rooted? Just. He is still young, but already has a hard bark. It can be the ripened shoots of this year or last year. It is necessary to start the cuttings when the sap flow is already completed, and berry bushes are cut after the appearance of the fruits. Ornamental shrubs are ready for cuttings in one to two weeks after flowering.
The easiest way to determine the willingness to cuttings in roses: if the spike easily breaks off when pressed to the side - feel free to cut the cuttings!
Although the terms are arbitrary, and for each type of plant, they are selected individually. For example, gooseberries I cuttings from mid-June to early August. I can propagate currant before flowering in June last year's shoots. Coniferous - by the third decade of June it is already necessary to cut it. Hazel, lilac and hydrangea will be ready to give good cuttings at the end of June. If you plant them in August, then new plants will not have time to get stronger in winter and will not tolerate it in open ground.
2. A correct environment is required for root formation
The cuttings of most bushes and trees in the water give roots reluctantly, rot.
MYTH 2: cuttings need nutritious soil, humus, fertilizers.
In no case do not plant cuttings in a fertilized and rich in organic soil. Such a focus will be held only in the south, where - wherever you stick a stick, it will still grow.
In open ground or at home, cuttings are rooted in light and poor ground.
Judging by my experience, horse peat with sand in a 1: 1 ratio is best suited. Sand can be replaced with perlite or vermiculite. Conifers, for example, juniper, are well rooted in sphagnum (this is moss).
3. Preparing the cuttings
Oblique slices, straight slices, above the kidney, under the kidney, cut with a knife, only cut with secateurs - which you can not read on the advisers on the Internet.
MYTH 3: the stalk should be cut diagonally at the bottom, and horizontally at the top.
I will tell you a secret: the difference in which section and where is not so significant. The following matters: on top there should be a few buds potentially ready to shoot, and on the bottom there should be enough space for the roots to form, but not too much for the excess to not rot.
The optimal length of the shank is from 5 cm to 10 cm. We dig it into the ground by 1.5-3 cm, depending on the thickness of the twig (the thicker, the deeper).
MYTH 4: stick the cuttings into the ground, be sure to tilt.
My practice shows that there is no difference: they slanted or evenly cut a stick into the ground. Perhaps this is important for large plantings and a limited area, when the plants closely they are better off growing from a tilted cuttings. My amateur landings are not crowded.
I almost always cut the leaves. A piece of petiole or even a petiole with a part of the leaf can be left in the rose, currant, lilac, mock-up and other bushes. It is easier to track how rooting occurs, and the process of photosynthesis is important for the plant.
Advice! Before cutting the cuttings, the uterine bush (or tree) needs to be well watered in advance, but there is no need to feed.
Cuttings can be stored for a very long time in a damp cloth in a cool place: a couple of weeks, even months.
On the bottom of the cuttings, where the roots are planned, it is advisable to make a couple of scratches on the bark. If the bark is too thick, you can even cut a small strip of a few millimeters around the entire circumference. I always cover the thick cuttings with wax so that they do not dry out much.
MYTH 5: pruning shears should be wiped with alcohol.
Alcohol during grafting is completely superfluous. A tool that makes an even cut (secateurs or a knife - it doesn’t matter) must be washed with soap and rinse in a strong solution of potassium permanganate before work. In general, my experience shows that holding cuttings in potassium permanganate themselves is not a sin to hold a couple of minutes. This is especially true for gooseberry twigs, currants and roses.
4. Cuttings need greenhouse conditions
You can argue, they say, it was a matter, without any shelter the cuttings were taken and grew perfectly well. Agree. It happens.
Attention! Remarkably, without any greenhouses in the middle lane, willow, hazel, lilac, mock, acacia root.
Most plants need a greenhouse, a shelter that protects against temperature fluctuations and loss of moisture in the soil, protects from the scorching sun.
It is very convenient to cover the stalk with a cut-off plastic bottle. Just make sure that he was spacious enough there, and he did not touch the walls.
For a large number of cuttings, a mini-greenhouse is made on arcs, close enough to the ground (30-40 cm) with a film. You can make a box for cuttings and cover it with glass.
We air the mini hotbed in good weather, slightly raising the edges of the film or glass. It will be possible to remove the film only when the cuttings are rooted and confidently move to growth. Gradually we accustom them in the afternoon to the sun, and at night to cool.
Coniferous cuttings in the open ground will be grateful if at first you cover them with wet white paper bags and only then pull the film or cover with glass.
When rooting, the soil should be moderately moistened always.
5. Root formation stimulants - optional
All living things want to live!
MYTH 6: without root stimulant, cuttings will not be accepted.
The fact that the branch was separated from the uterine bush and placed in the soil becomes a natural stimulus for the formation of roots. Therefore, roots are formed without external stimulation.
As for “Kornevin,” “Heteroauxin,” and similar drugs, I’ll say: a good thing, if you don’t overdo it. With stimulants, the percentage of established plants, of course, is greater.
The results of the cuttings can be evaluated only after a couple of weeks. In some cases, you will have to wait a month or even a half, until shoots appear on the new plant - a symbol of success.
In short - these are all the basic principles of summer cuttings.
So fruit and ornamental shrubs propagate, including roses.
Attention! The cuttings of some trees and conifers in the summer have a specificity.
The specifics of summer cuttings of some trees and conifers
Some trees and conifers are more difficult to cut than bushes.
Out of inexperience, I tried several times to "plant" branches of apple and pear, taken from a chic neighborhood garden. Alas and ah ... they do not take root. Such trees can be propagated by layering. The roots are rooted without cutting them from the mother tree. Only after the appearance of the roots can the stalk be separated.
Trees and conifers are cut as soon as the active sap flow has ended (end of May-first half of June). The cut is cut green from above and already having a bark from below. The growth point (the very top of the handle) is cut off.
In order for the roots of the cuttings to form actively, the tip of the coniferous cuttings needs to be slightly split, because the resin clogs the cut, preventing any interaction with the environment.
MYTH 7: coniferous plants need to be cut only in winter.
Perhaps in the nurseries conifers and cuttings all year round. Would the material be suitable. But I believe that only young twigs are suitable for the cuttings, such as we have in the middle lane only in May-June.
Cuttings of juniper "in the cochlea"
Of all my experiments with conifers, the most successful is the “snail” cuttings of juniper. I’ll tell you if you don’t rush.
Preparation took half an hour:
- I cut a strip of 15 cm from the substrate under the laminate (such a thin polyethylene porous film).
- Laid out moss on this strip (with this moss the roots of seedlings are often wrapped up during shipment).
- Cutting on May 25 a neighbor of young twigs from her chic twenty-year-old juniper, I laid them with stalks on a prepared base and turned them into a snail.
- Before laying the base of the twigs, I slightly split (about 5-7 mm). 2-3 cm from each cuttings fell into the moss, the rest was located on top. Naturally, I plucked the growth points, cut off part of the needles.
- The coiled snail, which easily fit in the hand, was placed briefly in a glass with a warm solution of potassium permanganate.
- She placed the entire structure in a transparent bag, which she tied on top.
- In a bag on top, I made several holes for ventilation.
In the future, it was necessary to rinse the glass every two to three days, add fresh water there.
On June 23, cuttings showed fresh green, barely noticeable shoots. I started a neat airing. I added Kornevin to the glass.
July 25 already completely removed the package.
On August 15, the snail was unwound. The roots were pretty decent, the longest - 5-7 centimeters.
Plants transplanted into the open ground on August 16.
For the winter, she huddled, sheltered under dry air shelter.
Total: cut off 15 cuttings. Gave roots 11. After transplantation in the open ground, they began 8. Wintered and 4 plants survived. I think this is a good result for an amateur beginner.
Causes of unsuccessful cuttings of plants in the summer
If even you did everything right, in your opinion, and the result is not happy - do not worry. As the classic said, experience is the son of difficult mistakes.
Analyzing my own and others' experience, I can single out the following possible errors of summer cuttings of trees and shrubs.
1. Cuttings that cuttings do not propagate
Before experimenting, find out at least fundamentally: do these plants grow from cuttings? Do not even try to propagate cuttings of sweet cherry, apricot, spruce, larch or fir. They do not breed like that.
2. Hurry, or late
It is very difficult to choose the time of the cuttings, the moment of removing the shelter and transplanting to a permanent place. Consult someone knowledgeable if unsure. And if you are sure - also listen to what “experienced” say. You will then know how competent they are.
3. We take the wrong cuttings and not there
So I want to take a stalk strong, straight, tending upward, one that is thicker and stronger than all its brothers. Do not take! Such cuttings are rooted with difficulty. The twig that grew sideways, leaned to the ground, shaded by neighboring branches will take root faster. Nature herself intended it for the cuttings!
I also noticed that if the plant is sleek, it was heavily fed with manure, it has a lot of new shoots, it grows in a sunny place and feels excellent - cuttings from it root badly, many rot.
If you decide to bring grape cuttings from Moldova and plant it in the Leningrad Region .... Well, it is quite possible to root it in greenhouse conditions or at home, but this seedling is not destined to grow and bear fruit in the open ground. Cut the plants of your region - the probability of success will increase significantly.
4. Forget about leaving
As for small children, the cuttings need daily care: airing, watering, and, if necessary, treatment for diseases and pests.
Many times I had this: I began to actively engage in cuttings. Then they started to grow, I was delighted, relaxed, and the cuttings die from excessive heat in the greenhouse or from night drafts under the film, from insufficient watering or excessive waterlogging as a result of the July rainfall. And how many plants died after improperly prepared wintering .... Do not count on chance. Do not repeat my mistakes.
The first year after the cuttings can not in any way weaken the attention!
In the end I will say: miracles do happen. The tale is a lie, but in it is a hint. It so happens that the most nondescript four-centimeter stretch of currant rod, stuck in the sand, three years later in the fourth, will give a full bucket of selected large fragrant berries.
Do not believe? And I gathered them today!