Skullcap - decoration and medicine on the flower bed
Flowers accompany us everywhere. A lovely bouquet of daisies on the dining table, a lush multicolor flowerbed at the entrance to the school or office, a bright discount at the cottage, a solitary planting on a mown lawn in a recreation park. But not only with bright colors, unusual shape and wondrous aromas we are attracted to flowers. They, in addition to beauty, give health. Almost all flowering plants are medicinal plants. Scutellaria from the clear-clad family also belong to such plants.
For the first time, Scutellaria as a medicinal plant is mentioned in Tibetan treatises 2500 years ago. From ancient times, scutellaria was used as a hemostatic agent, and later they began to be used from a large list of diseases in the national and official pharmacopeia.
In the family Lamiaceae (Lamiaceae), Scutellaria is a separate genus Shlemnik (Scutellaria), the species representative of which is common scutellaria (Scutellaria galericulata) The same species is found under the names Scutellaria scutellaria and Capricorn scutellaria due to the peculiar shape of the upper petal of a zygomorphic flower. In Latin, Scutellaria vulgaris means “a hat made of animal skin”, and among the people, scutellaria grass is referred to as a mother queen, field or blue St. John's wort, grandmother, pickle, heart grass, blue color and others.
The ancient origin developed in Scutellaria flexible adaptability to living conditions. Therefore, the genus Scutellaria occupies almost all continents, except Antarctica. Species distribution covers narrower ranges. So, Shlemnik Baikalsky (the only species used as a medicinal plant in official medicine) is found in natural thickets in Central Asia, Transbaikalia, Mongolia, China, the Far East. Plants are mesophilic and grow in places with high humidity: next to wet meadows, in river floodplains, along the banks of various water bodies, along the edges of humid forests and shrubs. How beautifully flowering Scutellaria is often found in houses and summer cottages.
Meet - these are helmets
Shlemniki are perennial plants, more than 400 species are common in nature. The root system is rod branchy. It deepens into the soil up to 50 cm. Closer to the surface of the soil, it gradually passes into the storage organ - the multi-headed rhizome is vertical or creeping. The color of the rhizome at the fracture is yellow, the surface is brown or yellow-brown.
The aerial part of Scutellaria is herbaceous or in the form of shrubs and shrubs, not more than 60 cm in height. The stems are straight, tetrahedral, covered with rare harsh hairs, green, less often - purple.
Leaves of several forms, from simple with round-hearted bases to elongated with blunt tips. Very interesting is the color of leaves of Scutellaria, which varies from dark to light green. Sometimes the upper and lower sides of the leaf blade are colored differently, its marginal design, the location of the pubescence from the hairs. The length of the leaves is 2-7 cm, the arrangement is opposite. Leaves sessile or on short pubescent petioles. Scutellaria flowers have bracts.
Scutellaria flowers are zygomorphic, located one at a time in the axils of the apical and middle leaves. The flowers are brought together in false whorls in pairs and collected in loose cyst-shaped inflorescences. Plants bloom from June to August. Petals of the corolla of different colors - from white, light pink to lilac-blue, burgundy, red-blue, violet and bluish-violet shades. Corolla of the flower is tubular, two-lipped. The upper lip of a zygomorphic flower has an original outgrowth or bend, characteristic of the entire genus. It resembles an ancient helmet, hence the name came to be - a helmet man. According to legend, Scutellaria is such a powerful hemostatic that it coagulates and stops bleeding even when used with a helmet or clothing.
The fruit of Scutellaria is called coenobium and is represented by 4 angular-ovoid nut-shaped fruits covered with small tubercles, glandular hairs bare or pubescent along the hollows. The fruits ripen from July to September. Mature coenobium shoots with nuts at the slightest touch, which contributes to the spread of plants.
Types of helmet for garden design
Shlemniki mainly belong to the group of dyeing plants. They do not have an exquisite aroma, but they look great as decoratively flowering and decoratively deciduous in flowerbeds, in discounts, mixborders and rock gardens. Helmets are effective in tapeworm plantings of mowed lawns and monoclomb of different color composition. They are unusually elegant in combination with lilies, large orange poppies, evening primrose, elecampane, gypsophila and other large beautifully flowering species of flowering plants.
For multi-color monoclumbes and in combination with other types of flowering plants, you can use Skullock Alpine (Scutellaria alpina) with white and white-pink flowers, Helmets heart-shaped (Scutellaria cordifrons) with pink and Shlemnik eastern (Scutellaria orientalis) with yellow flowers. Decorative Spearman skullcap (Scutellaria hastifolia) with light blue flowers and spear-shaped dark green leaves. Unusual Skull-sleeves (Scutellaria tuberosa) and Skeleton skullcap (Scutellaria costaricana) with bright blue and bright red flowers, respectively.
Useful properties of Scutellaria
For medicinal purposes, mainly two types are used: Skullcap Baikal (Scutellaria baicalensis) and Scutellaria vulgaris (Scutellaria galericulata) The healing properties are due to their chemical composition and high content of chemicals that have a positive effect on the cure of more than 40 diseases. The raw materials for the medicinal collection are rhizomes, which contain in large quantities the following macro- and microelements: potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, molybdenum, iodine and others. Rhizomes are rich in saponins, organic resins, flavonoids (baikalin, scutellarein, vogonin), coumarins, tannins.
Combinations of rhizome ingredients have a high therapeutic effect in oncological diseases (they slow down the growth of tumors, inhibit the formation of metastases), leukemia, support cardiac activity, normalize blood pressure, have beneficial effects on the peripheral and central nervous system, regulate the work of the liver and gall bladder, have a strong hemostatic effect in gynecological and external wound bleeding, anti-inflammatory and other diseases. At home, scutellaria can be used for a long time as herbal tea, rich in trace elements and vitamins.
Shlemnik belongs to allergic plants and plants with toxic properties. Therefore, when taking home decoctions and tinctures, be sure to consult a doctor.
In pharmacies you can buy packaged dry root with rhizome, dry extract, alcohol tinctures. Shlemnik is part of many herbal preparations and preparations.
Scutellaria baicalensis and Scutellaria vulgaris can be placed at the cottage in your vegetable medicine cabinet-medical bed or you can use these and other species in the decor of the site.
When growing Scutellaria to collect medicinal raw materials, it is better to place plants in open sunny places, but without burning sun. Penumbra practically does not affect the development of plants, but causes a noticeable chopping of flowers, which reduces the decorativeness of plants.
Shlemniki are not exacting to soils and leaving. They are winter hardy, drought tolerant. They do not have a depressing effect when co-grown with other flowering crops. When growing, they prefer neutral, light soils, breathable, with a lot of organic matter.
Soil preparation and sowing
During the autumn preparation of the soil for digging for a flower bed or a medicinal bed, you need to make a glass of dolomite flour or slaked lime, 0.5-1.0 bucket of humus (on heavy soils) and 30-40 g / m² of nitrofoska / nitroammofoski area.
Scutellaria can be sown or planted together with other plants, when frosts pass and the soil warms up to +10 .. + 12 ° С. On average, this is obtained in April-May, depending on the climatic conditions of the region.
Watering and feeding Scutellaria
Plants are watered after germination, when the upper soil crust dries, and over time, watering is carried out only in long dry weather.
During the growing season, helmets are fed twice when grown on medicinal raw materials. The first top dressing is carried out with nitrogen fertilizer 25-45 g / sq. m or a working solution of any organic matter and the second - when budding with phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, respectively, 30 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium salt per square meter. m. When grown in a flower garden, top dressing is carried out simultaneously with other plants, but is not overfed with nitrogen. With nitrogen abundance, Scutellaria and other flowering plants develop biomass to the detriment of flowering.
Scutellariae are best propagated by seed. Helmets bloom for the 2nd year. As a decorative culture, in order to preserve maternal characteristics, scutellaria is propagated by dividing rhizomes for the 3rd year. When vegetative propagation by parts of the rhizome, be sure to have 1-2 kidneys of renewal on each part. Given that Scullens have a root root, they do not take root well when transplanting seedlings. In the northern regions for flower beds, scutellaria propagate by seedlings. When propagated by seedlings, seedlings dive directly into the soil or into peat-humus pots, and then planted in the soil with pots, at the age of 2 - 4 leaves. Plants transplanted at a later date die. Sowing and seedling care is the same as other plants.
For winter, in the northern regions, the aboveground mass is not cut off. In their natural state, Scutellaria plants hibernate better. They are pruned in the spring. In the southern regions in the autumn, stems are cut at the level of 7-10 cm hemp.
Cleaning of medicinal raw materials
When growing Scutellaria on a medical bed, the harvesting of medicinal raw materials is carried out on the 3rd - 4th year. Be sure to leave a part of the plants for natural reproduction and the next collection is carried out no earlier than 5 years.
Processing and storage
Carefully dug rhizomes with roots are cleaned of soil, cut off the aerial part. The rhizome itself is divided into separate parts of 5-7 cm and immediately placed for drying. Dried in ovens at a temperature of +40 .. + 60 ° C. When drying is monitored so that the raw materials are not moldy. The dried cured layer is removed from the dried raw material and put into bags made of natural fabrics or in a wooden (“breathing”) container. Shelf life of raw materials is 3 years.
At home, you can use alcohol tincture, decoctions of rhizomes. Be sure to consult a doctor before use.